Posts Tagged ‘posthuman

03
Dec
08

Weinstone’s Avatar Bodies

Ann Weinstone
Avatar Bodies: A Tantra for Posthumanism
Area: Digital Media
From Robert Pepperell’s Review

•    “Posthumanism thus far has focused nearly exclusively on human-technology relations.”
•    Technology is often cast as a greedy and acquisitive external force, gradually gnawing away at the core of what it is to be human.
•    “Ann Weinstone largely avoids this problem, preferring to develop instead a posthumanism of human-human relations in which the rupture between selves–between one human and another–is abrogated: “In order to create the conditions for the emergence of a nonexemptive, nonelitist ethics . . . we will have to give up our reliance on concepts of the radically other, or the other as such” (p. 14).
•    a poetic iteration of the word ‘post’, with its dual associations of ‘coming after’ (as in posthuman) and as a form of communication (as in the postal service) manages to connect the renunciation of what has gone before and the ethics of personal communication (p. 185).
•    “If we want to fundamentally alter our experience and conception of self, we must break the law of the other, the law of the alien, the irremediably unfamiliar, of exteriority (or interiority) as such. We need to get drunk with each other so we can become posthuman (p. 107).
•    a doctrine of absolute undifference is unsustainable in the longer term since it contradicts habitual experience, which consists of an infinite series of differentiations embedded in our conscious state of being
•    “I am proposing, then, as a gesture that would invite a posthuman ethics to come, a commitment to an every day practice of writing in relationship via e-mail relations with those we have never met” (p. 206).
•    That we are not humans on our own, but become human through our intimate relations with others–what Weinstone calls our “entanglement” (p. 217).
From Kathryn Farley’s Review
•    Weinstone’s mode of inquiry stresses the interconnected nature of human relations in which notions of the self are inextricably tied to understandings of “otherness”. In fact, she interrogates the self/other binary classification, stating: “I am concerned with events that suspend the terms self and other and with the ethical consequences that flow from these events-in-common” (27).  She then goes on to cite trauma, pleasure love, devotion, illness and inebriation as examples of such events.

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25
Nov
08

Hayles’ My Mother Was a Computer

N. Katherine Hayles
My Mother Was a Computer: Digital Subjects and Literary Texts
Area: Digital Media
Preface: Computing Kin

•    Materiality—construction of matter that matter for human meaning
•    The complex dynamics through which the Computational universe works simultaneously as a means and metaphor in technical and artistic practices
•    Intermediation = complex transactions between bodies and texts as well as between different forms of media
o    The posthuman will be understood as effects of media
2: “’Postbiological’ future: the expectation that the corporeal embodiment that has always functioned to define the limits of the human will in the future become optional, as humans find ways to upload their consciousness into computers and leave their bodies behind.”
4: “In the contemporary period, reading as ‘hallucination’ has been displaced in part by the instant messaging, chat rooms, video games, e-mail, and Web surfing that play such a a large role in young people’s experiences.  To an extent, then, the mother’s voice that haunted reading has been supplanted by  another set of stimuli: the visual, audio, kinesthetic, and haptic cues emanating from the computer.  If the mother’s voice was the link connecting subjectivity with writing, humans with natural environments, then the computer’s beeps, clicks, and tones are the links connecting contemporary subjectivities to electronic environments, humans to the Computational Universe.”
Chapter 1: Intermediation: Textuality and the Regimes of Computation
•    Comparison of speech, writing, and code
•    Code: synecdoche for information
•    Emergence
o    25: “This term refers to properties that do not in here in the individual components of a system; rather, these properties come about from interactions between components.”
22: “Even if code is not originally ontological, it becomes so through these recursive feedback loops.  In Wetwares, Richard Doyle makes a similar observation about the belief that we will someday be able to upload our consciousness into computers and thereby effectively achieve immortality.  Doyle comments, ‘’Uploading,’ the desire to be wetware, makes possible a new technology of the self, one fractured by the exteriority of the future….Uploading seems to install discursive, material, and social mechanism for the anticipation of an externalized self, a techno-social mutation that is perhaps best characterized as a new capacity to be affected by, addicted to, the future.”
33: “’Remediation’ has the disadvantage of locating the starting for the cycles in a particular locality and medium, whereas ‘intermediation’ is more faithful to the spirit of multiple causality in emphasizing interactions among media.”
33: “I want to expand its denotations to include interactions between systems of representations, particularly language and code, as well as interactions between modes of representation, particularly analog and digital.  Perhaps most importantly, ‘intermediation’ also denotes mediating interfaces connecting humans with the intelligent machines that are our collaborators in making, storing, and transmitting informational processes and objects.”
Chapter 4: Translating Media
•    If the text is stored accurately on a second storage medium, the text remains the same though the signs for it are different
o    Braille v. Print versions: the text is the same but the sensory input is very different
•    “The materiality of an embodied text is the interaction of its physical characteristics with its signifying strategies.”
101: “With electronic texts there is a conceptual distinction—and often an actualized one—between storage and delivery vehicles, whereas with print the storage and delivery vehicles are one and the same.  With electronic texts, the data files may be on one server and the machine creating the display may be in another location entirely, which means that electronic text exists as a distributed phenomenon. The dispersion introduces many possible sources of variation into the production of electronic text that do not exist in the same way with print, for example, when a user’s browser displays a text with different colors than those the writer say on her machine when she was creating it.”
102: “Certainly the time lag is an important component of the electronic text, for it determines in what order the user will view the material.  Indeed, as anyone who has grown impatient with long load times knows, in many instances it determines whether the user will see the image at all.  These times are difficult to predict precisely because they depend on the individual computer’s processing speed, traffic on the Web, efficiency of data distribution on the hard drive, and other imponderables.  This aspect of electronic textuality—along with many others—cannot be separated from the delivery vehicles that produce it as a process with which the user can interact.”

12
Nov
08

Hables Gray’s Cyborg Citizen

Chris Hables Gray
Cyborg Citizen: Politics in the Posthuman Age
Area: Digital Media
Intro: Slouching Toward the Posthuman—Does Participatory Evolution Require Participatory Government?

•    We live in a cyborg society no matter how unmodified we are as individuals
•    Participatory evolution means we should shape out future through multiple human choices
2: “A cyborg is a self-regulating organism that combines the natural and artificial together in one system.  Cyborgs so not have to be part human, for any organism/system that mixes the evolved and the made, the living and the inanimate, is technically a cyborg.  This would include biocomputers based on organic processes, along with roaches with implants and bioengineered microbes.”
Chapter 1: The Cyborg Politic Body
•    “Technoscience”
•    Postmodernity is transitory, it is a crisis, and the choices we make will determine what will replace it
•    Modern war = modernism
•    Hayles: “The postmodern may turn out to be the equivalent to the posthuman”
•    Jameson: defines postmodernism as a problem of capitalism, not of the modern world
o    A return to the modernist myth of scientific liberation through intellectual and physical domination: Marxism
•    Linda Hutcheon: postmodernism is responsibility and tolerance
o    Must be critical of our complicity because we have the power as participants to shape reality
15: “In How We Became Posthuman [Hayles]  explains how posthumanism might recoup the best parts of humanism, by showing that posthumanism is both a social construction of what it means to be human in the present as well as the technological construction of a new type of techno-bio body in the near future through cyborgization.”
Chapter 5: Infomedicine and the new body
•    As more cyborgian technologies become available, who will have access to them?
o    Only the rich and well-insured?
Chapter 7: Enabled Cyborgs, Living and Dead
•    Quality of life is subjective.  Machine integration and declining quality of life might lead to suicide.
o    No clear line between survival and pleasure
•    Penile prosthetics
100: “Cyborg technologies such as these and the more widespread life-support machinery have lead to a sea change in the public’s attitude toward suicide, which is not seen by many as an exercise of individual autonomy and a right.”
Chapter 9: Prosthetic Territories: Cybercolonializations
•    The notion that bodies and persons are things that can be made
•    Cyborgization and politics is about bodies
•    Cyborg politics are about power => knowledge is power
•    Knowledge is situated; meaning is constructed
•    Systems achieve equilibriums but they don’t survive in stasis
o    It’s thrive or die

14
Aug
08

Hayles’ How We Became Posthuman

N. Katherine Hayles
How We Became Posthuman
Area: Digital Media
Preface

•    Turing Test: designed to show that machines can perform thinking
•    Moravec Test: designed to show machines can become the repository of human consciousness => can become human beings
•    The Turing Test “proves” that the overlay between enacted and represented bodies is a contingent production, mediated by a technology
Chapter 1: Toward Embodied Virtuality
•    Three interrelated stories
o    How information lost its body
o    How the cyborg was created as a technological artifact and cultural icon
o    How the human is giving way to a different construction called the Posthuman
•    Informational pathways connect the organic body to its prosthetic extensions
•    Posthuman privileges informational patterns over material instantiation
•    With the Posthuman, there are no differences between bodily existence and computer simulation
•    The liberal body possessed a body, but wasn’t usually identified as being a body
•    Beginning to envision ourselves as posthuman collectivities
•    The intent is to evolve the capacity to evolve
•    Skeuomorph: a design feature that’s no longer functional, but refers back to a feature that was of an earlier time
•    Information is a pattern, not a presence => Shannon
•    3: “The posthuman view thinks of the body as the original prosthesis we all learn to manipulate, so that extending or replacing the body with other prostheses becomes a continuation of a process that began before we were born.”
•    4: “If ‘human essence is freedom form the wills of others,’ the posthuman is ‘post’ not because it is necessarily unfree by because there is no a priori way to identify a self-will that can be clearly distinguished from an other-will.”
•    8: “Reflexivity is the movement whereby that which has been used to generate a system is made, through a changed perspective, to become part of the system it generates.”
•    13: “Marvin Minsky precisely expressed this dream when, in a recent lecture, he suggested it will soon be possible to extract human memories from the brain and import them, intact and unchanged, to computer disks.”
Chapter 8: The Materiality of Informatics
•    It’s not that the body has disappeared, but a certain kind of subjectivity has emerged
•    Relative to the body, embodiment is other and elsewhere
•    The body : embodiment :: inscription : incorporation
•    The body produces culture at the same time culture produces the body
•    Bordieu: habitus: the durably installed generative principle of regulated improvisations
•    Four characterizations of knowledge gained through incorporating practices
o    Incorporating knowledge retains improvisational elements: contextual, rather than abstract
o    Deeply sedimented into the body and highly resistant to change
o    Incorporating knowledge is screened from conscious view because it’s habitual
o    Power to define boundaries within which conscious thought takes place
•    The feedback loop between technological innovations and discursive practices is a crucial link
•    Johnson: how the body writes discourse
•    Burroughs: The word as the body’s other half
•    194: “It is not coincidental that the Panopticon abstracts power out of the bodies of disciplinarians into a universal, disembodied gaze.  On the contrary, it is precisely this move that gives the Panopticon its force, for when the bodies of the disciplinarians seem to disappear into the technology, the limitations of corporeality are hidden.”
•    199: “Embodiment cannot exist without a material structure that always deviates in some measure form its abstract representations; an incorporating practice cannot exist without an embodied creature to enact it, a creature who always deviates in some measure from the norms.”
•    200: “Habit is a knowledge and a remembering in the hands and in the body; and in the cultivation of habit it is our body which ‘understands.’”
•    200: “Incorporating practices perform the bodily content; inscribing practices correct and modulate the performance.”
•    204-5: Connerton: “Every group will entrust to bodily automatisms the values and categories which they are most anxious to conserve.  They will know how well the past can be kept in mind by a habitual memory sedimented in the body.”
Chapter 9: Narratives of Artificial Life
•    This chapter is full of info on the genealogy of AL—check back
•    Moravec: Privileges consciousness as the determination of human
•    Brooks: Ability to move around and interact robustly with environment
•    In the computational universe, everything is reducible, at some level, to information
•    Human mind without human body is not human mind
•    225: “Conventionally, Artificial Life is divided into three research fronts.  Wetware is the attempt to create artificial biological life through such techniques as building components of unicellular organisms in test tubes.  Hardware is the construction of robots and other embodied life-forms.  Software is the creation of computer programs instantiating emergent or evolutionary processes.”
•    232: “Artificial Life is the study of man-made systems that exhibit behaviors characteristic of natural living systems.  It complements the traditional biological sciences concerned with the analysis of living organisms by attempting to synthesize life-like behaviors within computers and other artificial media.  By extending the empirical foundation upon which biology is based beyond the carbon-chain life that has evolved on Earth, Artificial Life can contribute to theoretical biology by locating life-as-we-know-it with in the larger picture of life-as-it-could-be.”
•    235: “By positioning AL as a second instance of life, researchers affect the definition of biological life as well, for now it is the juxtaposition that determines what counts as fundamental, not carbon-based forms by themselves.”
Conclusion: What Does it Mean to be Posthuman?
•    Just as the posthuman need not be antihuman, it also need not be apocalyptic
•    286: “When the self is envisioned as grounded in presence, identified with originary guarantees and teleological trajectories, associated with solid foundations and logical coherence, the posthuman is likely to be seen as antihuman because it envisions the conscious mind as a small subsystem running its program of self-construction and self-assurance while remaining ignorant of the actual dynamics of complex systems.”
•    290: “No longer is human will seen as the source form which emanates the mastery necessary to dominate and control the environment.  Rather, the distributed cognition of the emergent human subject correlates with—in Bateson’s phrase, becomes a metaphor for—the distributed cognitive system as a whole, in which ‘thinking’ is done by both human and nonhuman actors.”




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