Archive for July, 2008

31
Jul
08

List: Update

Rhetorical and Critical Theory

Arendt, Hannah.  The Human Condition. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1998.

Auerbach, Erich. Mimesis: The Representation of Reality in Western Literature.  Trans. Willard R. Trask.
Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 2003.

Baudrillard, Jean. Simulacra and Simulation.  Trans. Sheila Faria Glaser. Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P,
1995.

—. The Vital Illusion. Ed. Julia Witwer. New York: Columbia UP, 2000.

Benjamin, Walter. “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction.” Illuminations. Trans. Harry Zohn. New York: Schocken Books: 1968. 217-252.

Bergson, Henri. Creative Evolution. Trans. Arthur Mitchell. New York: Dover, 1998.

Burke, Kenneth. Counter-Statement. Second edition. Berkeley and Los Angeles: U of
California P, 1968.

—. Permanence and Change. Third edition. Berkeley and Los Angeles: U of California
P, 1984.

De Certeau, Michel. The Practice of Everyday Life. Trans. Steven Rendall. Berkeley: U
of California P, 1984.

De Landa, Manuel. Intensive Science and Virtual Philosophy. Transversals. New York:
Continuum, 2002.

Deleuze, Gilles.. Coldness and Cruelty. Trans. Jean McNeil. New York: Zone, 1991.

—.  The Logic of Sense. Trans. Mark Lester.  New York: Columbia UP, 1990.

—, and Felix Guattari. Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Trans.
Robert Hurley, Mark Seem, and Helen R. Lane. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 2003.

Foucault, Michel. Aesthetics, Method, and Epistemology. Ed. James P. Faubion. Essential
Works of Foucault, 1954-184 2. Ed. Paul Rabinow. New York: New Press, 1997.

—. Ethics: Subjectivity and Truth. Essential Works of Foucault, 1954-184 1. Ed. Paul
Rabinow. New York: New Press, 1997.

—.  Fearless Speech.  Ed. Joseph Pearson.  Los Angeles: Semiotext(e), 2001.

Glen, Cheryl. Unspoken: A Rhetoric of Silence.  Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 2004.

Hardt, Michael, and Antonio Negri.  Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 2000.

Jameson, Fredric. Postmodernism, or, The Logic of Late Capitalism.  Durham, Duke UP: 1991.

Nealon, Jeffrey T. Alterity Politics: Ethics and Performative Subjectivity. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 1998.

—.  Foucault Beyond Foucault : Power and Its Intensifications Since 1984. Stanford, CA: Stanford UP,
2008.

Negri, Antonio. Political Descartes: Reason, Ideology and the Bourgeois Project. Verso, 2007.

Richards, I. A. The Philosophy of Rhetoric. New York: Oxford UP, 1964.

Steigler, Bernard.  Technics and Time, 1: The Fault of Epimetheus.  Trans. Richard Beardsworth and
George Collins.  Stanford: Stanford UP, 1998.

Virno, Paolo. A Grammar of the Multitude: For an Analysis of Contemporary Forms of Life. Cambridge,
MA: Semiotext(e), 2003.

Walker, Jeffrey. Rhetoric and Poetics in Antiquity. New York: Oxford UP, 2000.

Zizek, Slavoj.  The Plague of Fantasies.  New York: Verso, 1997.

Digital Media

Ansell-Pearson, Kieth. Viroid Life: Perspectives on Nietzsche and the Transhuman Condition. New York:
Routledge, 1997.

Bolter, Jay David and Richard Grusin.  Remediation: Understanding New Media.  Cambridge, MA: MIT
Press, 2000.

Burnett, Ron.  How Images Think. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004.

Castells, Manuel. The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture. 3 vols. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell,
1996-97. (Vol. 1: The Rise of the Network Society, pg. 1-25, 195-200; Vol. II: The Power of
Identity, pg. 1-67).

Churchland, Patricia Smith. Neurophilosophy: Toward a Unified Knowledge of the Mind-
Brain. Computational Models of Cognition and Perception. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press,1986.

Connolly, William E. Neuropolitics. Theory out of Bounds 23. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 2002.

Doyle, Richard On Beyond Living: Rhetorical Transformations of the Life Sciences. Writing Science.
Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, 1997.

—. Wetwares!: Experiments in Post-Vital Living. Theory out of Bounds 24. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota
P, 2002.

Fahnestock, Jeanne. Rhetorical Figures in Science. New York: Oxford UP, 1999.

Fukuyama, Francis. Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution. New York:
Picador, 2002.

Galloway, Alexander. Protocol: How Control Exists after Decentralization.  Minneapolis: U of Minnesota
P: 2007.

Gee, James Paul.  What Video Games Have to Teach Us about Learning and Literacy. New York :
Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.

Gray, Chris Habl. Cyborg Citizen: Politics in the Posthuman Age. New York: Routledge, 2001.

Hansen, Mark B.N. Bodies in Code: Interfaces with Digital Media. New York: Routledge, 2006.

—.  New Philosophy for New Media. Cambridge, MA. : MIT Press, 2004.

Haraway, Donna. “Cyborg Manifesto.” Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of Nature. New
York: Routledge, 1991.

Hayles, N. Katherine.  How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature,and
Informatics. Chicago, Ill. : University of Chicago Press, 1999.

—.  My Mother Was A Computer: Digital Subjects and Literary Texts. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2005.

Hocks, Mary E. and Michelle R. Kendrick, eds.  Eloquent Images: Word and Image in the Age of New
Media. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003.

Johnson-Eilola, Johndan.  Datacloud : Toward a New Theory of Online Work.  Cresskill, N.J.: Hampton
Press, 2005.

Kittler, Friedrich. Grammophone, Film, Typewriter. Writing Science. Trans. Geoffrey Winthrop-Young and
Michael Wutz. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1999.

Kochlar-Lindgren, Gray.  Technologics: Ghosts, the Incalcuable, and the Suspension of Animation.
Albany: SUNY Press, 2005.

Kress, Gunther. Literacy in the New Media Age. Literacies. New York: Routledge, 2003.

Kuhn, Thomas S. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Third edition. Chicago: U of  Chicago P, 1996.

Lanham, Richard A. Electronic Word: Democracy, Technology, and the Arts. Chicago: U of Chicago P,
1995.

Latour, Bruno. Pandora’s Hope: Essays on the Reality of Science Studies. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP,
1999.

—.  We Have Never Been Modern. Trans by Catherine Porter. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf,1993.

Levy, Pierre. Becoming Virtual: Reality in the Digital Age. New York: Plenum, 1998.

Massumi, Brian.  Parables for the Virtual: Movement, Affect, Sensation. Durham N.C.: Duke UP, 2002.

McLuhan, Marshall.  The Gutenberg Galaxy; The Making of Typographic Man. Toronto: U of
Toronto P,1962.

—. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1994.

— and Bruce R. Powers.  The Global Village: Transformations in World Life and Media in the 21st
Century. New York: Oxford UP, 1989.

— and Quentin Fiore.  The Medium Is the Message: An Inventory of Effects. San Francisco, CA:
HardWired, 1996.

Ong, Walter J. Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word. New York: Routledge, 1988.

Piperno,  Franco.  “Technological Innovation and Sentimental Education.” Radical Thought in Italy: A
Potential Politics. Eds. Paolo Virno, Michael Hardt.  Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1996.

Shaviro, Steven. Connected, or, What It Means to Live in the Network Society. Electronic Mediations 9.
Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 2003.

Sobchack, Vivian.  Carnal Thoughts: Embodiment and Moving Image Culture. Berkeley: U of
California P, 2004.

Stengers, Isabelle. Power and Invention: Situating Science. Trans. Paul Bains. Theory out of Bounds 19.
Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1997.

Steur, Jonathan. “Defining Virtual Reality: Dimensions Determining Telepresence.” Journal of
Communication 42(4) (1992): pg. 79-90.

Stone, Allucquère Roseanne. The War of Desire and Technology at the Close of the Mechanical Age.
Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995.

Suchman, Lucy A. Human-Machine Reconfigurations: Plans and Situated Actions. Cambridge, MA:
Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Wark, McKenzie. A Hacker Manifesto. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 2004.

Wiener, Norbert. Cybernetics or Control and Communication in the Animal. 2nd ed. MIT Press, 1965.

Weinstone, Ann. Avatar Bodies: A Tantra for Posthumanism. Electronic Mediations 10. Minneapolis: U of
Minnesota P, 2003

History of Rhetoric and Memory Studies

Anonymous. Rhetorica ad Herennium. Cambridge, Harvard UP, 1954.

Bacon, Francis. The Advancement of Learning. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1974.

Bergson, Henri.  Matter and Memory.  Trans. N.M. Paul and W.S. Palmer.  New York: Zone Books,1991.

Boym, Svetlana. The Future of Nostalgia. New York: Basic Books, 2001.

Burgin, Victor. In/Different Spaces: Place and Memory in Visual Culture. Berkeley: University of
California P,1996.

Carruthers, Mary. The Book of Memory: A Study of Memory in Medieval Culture. Cambridge UP, 2008.

Cicero. De Oratore. Trans. James M. May and Jakob Wisse. New York, Oxford UP, 2001.

Cope, Bill and Mary Kalantzia, eds. Multiliteracies: Literacy Learning and the Design of Social Futures.
New York: Routledge, 2000.

Deleuze, Gilles. Cinema 2: The Time Image. Trans. Hugh Tomlinson and Robert Galeta. Minneapolis: U of
Minnesota P,1989.

—.  Proust and Signs.  Trans. Richard Howard.  New York: George Braziller, 1972

Derrida, Jacques.  Archive Fever: A Freudian Impression.  Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1998.

—.  Dissemination.  Trans. Barbara Johnson.  Chicago: U of Chicago Press,1981.

—.  Specters of Marx: The State of Debt, the Work of Mourning, and the New International.  New
York: Routledge, 1994.

–.  “White Mythology.”   Margins of Philosophy.  Trans. Alan Bass.  Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1972.

Detienne, Marcel.  The Masters of Truth in Archaic Greece.  Trans. Janet Lloyd.  New York: Zone Books,
1996.

De Quincey, Thomas. Confessions of an English Opium Eater. New York: Dutton, 1960.

Donald, Merlin.  A Mind So Rare: The Evolution of Human Consciousness.  New York:W.W. Norton,
2001.

—.  Origins of the Modern Mind: Three Stages in the Evolution of Culture and Cognition. “Third
Transition: External Symbolic and Theoretical Culture.”  Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1991.

Eisenstein, Elizabeth L.  The Printing Press as an Agent of Change: Communications
and Cultural Transformations in Early Modern Europe.  New York: Cambridge UP, 1979.

Freud, Sigmund.  The Interpretation of Dreams.  London: Penguin Books, 1950.

—. The Unconscious.  New York: Penguin Books, 2005.

Gross, Alan G. The Rhetoric of Science. Second ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1996.

—. “Rhetoric of Science without Constraints.” Rhetorica 9 (1991): 283-299.

—, and William Keith (eds). Rhetorical Hermeneutics: Invention and Interpretation in the Age of Science.
SUNY Series in Speech Communication. Albany: State U of New York P, 1997.

Isocrates. Isocrates I. Trans. David Mirhady and Yun Lee Too. Selections: “Encomium to Helen,”
“Against the Sophists,” “On the Team of Horses,” and “Antidosis.”Austin: U of Texas P, 2000.

Jarratt, Susan C. Rereading the Sophists: Classical Rhetoric Refigured. Carbondale:
Southern Illinois UP, 1998.

Kastely, James L. Rethinking the Rhetorical Tradition: From Plato to Postmodernism. New Haven, CO:
Yale UP, 1997.

Kerferd, G. B. The Sophistic Movement. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge UP, 1981.

Kittler, Friedrich A. Discourse Networks 1800/1900. Trans. Michael Metteer with Chris Cullens. Stanford:
Stanford UP, 1990.

Koselleck, Reinhart.  Futures Past: On the Semantics of Historical Time.  Trans. Keith Tribe.  New York:
Columbia UP, 2004.

Lacan, Jacques.  The Psychoses 1955-1956 (Seminar of Jacques Lacan).  Trans. Jacques-Alain Miller,
Russell Grigg.  New York: W. W. Norton, 1997.

Lakoff, George, and Mark Johnson. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980.

Llull, Ramon. Selected Works of Ramón Llull (1232-1316). Ed. and trans. by Anthony Bonner. Princeton,
N.J.: Princeton UP, 1985.

Locke, John.  An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975.

Loraux, Nicole. The Invention of Athens: The Funeral Oration in the Classical City. Trans. Alan Sheridan.
Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006

Lyotard, Jean-Francois. The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge. Trans Geoffrey Bennington
and Brian Massumi. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1985.

McComiskey, Bruce. Gorgias and the New Sophistic Rhetoric. Rhetorical Philosophy and Theory.
Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 2002.

Olsen, Gary A. (ed.). Rhetoric and Composition as Intellectual Work. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP,
2002.

Ong, Walter.  Ramus, Method, and the Decay of Dialogue: From the Art of Discourse to the Art of Reason.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1958.

Petraglia, Joseph.  Reality by Design: The Rhetoric and Technology of Authenticity in Education. Mahwah,
N.J.: L. Erlbaum, 1998.

Plato. “Gorgias.” Trans. W.D. Woodhead.  Plato: The Collected Dialogues.  Ed. Edith Hamilton and
Huntington Cairns.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1963.

—-. “Phaedrus.” Trans. Harold North Fowler. Plato I: Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Phaedo, Phaedrus. Ed.
Harold North Fowler. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Harvard Univeristy Press, 1990.

Poulakis, John. Sophistical Rhetoric in Classical Greece. Studies in Rhetoric/Communication. Columbia,
SC: U of South Carolina P, 1995.

Quinitilian. Institutio Oratorio. Trans. Donald Russell. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 2001.

Ramus, Peter. Arguments in Rhetoric against Quintilian. Trans. Carole Newlands. Dekalb, IL: Northern
Illinois UP, 1986.

Ricoeur, Paul.  Memory, History, Forgetting. Trans. Kathleen Blamey and David Pellauer.  Chicago:
U of Chicago P, 2006.

Soliday, Mary. The Politics of Remediation. Pittsburgh Series in Composition, Literacy, and Culture.
Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh P, 2002.

St. Augustin. On Christian Teaching. New York: Oxford UP, 1999.

Sprague, Rosamond Kent.  The Older Sophists: A Complete Translation By Several Hands Of The
Fragments In Die Fragmente Der Vorsokratiker, Edited By Diels-Kranz. With A New Edition Of
Antiphon And Of Euthydemus Indianapolis : Hackett Pub., 2001.

Thebaud, Jean-Loup and  Jean-Francois Lyotard.  Just Gaming.  Minnesota: U of Minnesota P, 1985.

Van Dijck, José.  Mediated Memories in the Digital Age. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2007.

Warnick, Barbara. Critical Literacy in a Digital Era: Technology, Rhetoric, and the Public Interest.
Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2002.

Welch, Kathleen E. Electric Rhetoric: Classical Rhetoric, Oralism, and the New Literacy. Digital
Communication. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999.

Wells, Susan.   Sweet Reason: Rhetoric and the Discourses of Modernity.  Chicago: University of Chicago
Press, 1996.

Yates, Frances A. The Art of Memory. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1966.

25
Jul
08

Loraux’s The Invention of Athens

Nicole Loraux, The Invention of Athens: The Funeral Oration in the Classical City
Area: History of Rhetoric and Memory Studies
Intro: A Very Athenian Invention
•    Funeral oration=genre; epitaphios=examples of the genre
Chapter Two: The Address to the Dead and Its Destination
•    The nature of the ceremony implies that the city recognizes the existence of “the others”
o    Takes cognizance of the casualties it has inflicted on the enemy
•    An ally was merely a subject—all conflicts were resolved in admiration
•    A speech without a reply, intended to arouse in its listeners both submission and respect
•    If you want to praise a city, you must compare it with a worthy rival
•    Pericles: memory “is to be attached more to the decision that to the act of the dead”
•    There is not life but that of the city
•    By exalting the city’s present, he would ensure its future
Critical moments from the text
•    36: “From this perspective, the funeral oration begins to look like an every-absent model, a ghost-oration that, with one exception, we will know only through more or less accurate copies: a historian and a philosopher were pleased to compose an exemplary epitaphios, a way of proposing a theory of the funeral oration; a Sophist and a rhetor used the official oration in order to write a fictitious logos; within the corpus, then, the “false” follows hard upon the “true,” and one begins to regret that authentic epitaphioi should have remained unknown because national eloquence resisted for so long the seductions of writing.”
•    119-20: “But there is a considerable difference between a speech delivered before a battle by way of encouragement and a eulogy of the dead, even if it includes an exhortation to the living.  In the first case, the words are delivered immediately before an action, and thus are aimed at an immediate effect; in the other, they take place after the action, and any effect they are to have must be long-term, in the lifetime of the city itself.”
•    121: “If each oration is intended to be efficacious here and now, the desired effect is not necessarily always the same or always obtainable.  And it the funeral oration has several different aims, trying to win support for a particular strategy or being content to confirm accepted values, it is because it is rooted both in the evolution of the city and in its own, at first sight paradoxical, destiny.”
•    129: “And the verb sunkatopkizein, with which the passage closes, farm from indicating a colonizing act, assumes a figurative sense by virtue of the direct object attributed to it: what the Athenians are founding are “commemorative monuments” of good and evil things.  Now, the orator has just declared that the true monument is a trace in men’s memories and not a material building; so we must regard these mnemeia, which refer to no tangible realization of Athenian imperialism, as memories of fine victories or noble defeats, as signs of arête.”
•    140: “We can compare Isocrates’s text with Pericles’s epitaphios, bit in addition to the resemblances we must stress the profound differences in inspiration between the two speeches whereas Pericles praises the demokratia, Isocrates exalts the ancient politeia established by the original Athenians; and far from offering the democratic system as a universal model, he attributes to Athens the creation of the first constitution, and undifferentiated matrix from which every political form may emerge.”
•    145: “At once a eulogy of worthy men, and honor accorded the dead, and a stock of instructive examples, the funeral oration is, both for Lysias and for Periclaes, a lesson in civic morality intended for the living.  It is a one-dimensional lesson in which the virtue of the citizen is canceled out by the valor of the soldier, in which military activity is offered as a model for civic practice.  This strict ethic is suggestive of the original time of the hoplitic phalanx rather than a reflection of the military organization of Athens in the fifth century, based as it was on the political organization of the city.”
•    148: “In its extremism, the funeral oration foes much further than this: if, as a passage in Hyperides’s epitaphios suggests, one is truly an aner only in death, a fine death has all the characteristics of an initiation—a fearful initiation in which death no longer has anything symbolic about it, in which thanatos is a transition bit also a beginning and end, in which one is born into a new status only be renouncing forever the condition of the living creature.”
•    176: “By exalting the city’s present, he would ensure its future.  It was s risky enterprise, of course, and one that tended toward the loss of any sense of temporality: if one overvalues the future, except to absorb them into an excessively drawn-out present?  We know what happens to the past in the epitaphios.  Where the future is concerned, Pericles’s’ strategy is more subtle: by integrating the future into the present and the unknown into the known, the statesman may have been trying not so much to conquer the eternal as to confirm the present, not so much to transcend time as to dominate it.”

24
Jul
08

Deleuze’s Proust and Signs

Deleuze, Proust and Signs
Area: History of Rhetoric and Memory Studies
Foreword
•    Interpretation is the converse of a production of signs
•    Proust’s work produces signs in different order
Chapter 1: Signs
•    Not memory, but “the search for truth”
•    Not only lost time, but also time wasted, lost track of
•    The hero doesn’t know what this or that is—he will learn it later on
•    Proust’s Platonism: to learn is still to remember
•    The search is oriented in the future, not the past
•    “How can we gain access to a landscape which is no longer this one we see, but on the contrary the one in which we are seen?”
•    Jealousy contains love’s truth: goes further into apprehension and interpretation of signs
•    Material meaning is nothing without an ideal essence which it incarnates
Chapter 2: Signs and Truth
•    Truth has essential relation to time
•    What does the person who says, “I want to know the truth” mean?
o    “We search for truth only when we are determined to do so in concrete situations”
o    Always violence that starts the search for truth
•    He who says “I want the truth” wants it only when it’s constrained and forced
•    To seek the truth is to interpret, decipher, and duplicate
o    Truth of time is always temporal
•    Proust: change ≠ Bergsonian duration, but defection, a race to the grave
•    Calendar of facts v. calendar of feelings
•    Memory implies “the strange contradiction of survival and nothingness”
•    Once we love a mediocre person, s/he is richer in signs that the most profound intelligence
•    We learn by doing with someone, not by doing like someone
•    Must be forced to seek the sign’s meaning: violence
Chapter 5: Secondary Role of Memory
•    Memory is voluntary and always comes too late in relation to signs being deciphered
•    Involuntary memory intervenes with sensuous signs only
o    Reminiscences and discoveries
•    “Does the sensuous quality address the imagination, or simply the memory?”
•    Reminiscences are metaphors of live; metaphors are reminiscences of art
•    With reminiscence: How do we explain the absence of resemblance between present and past?
•    Voluntary memory: actual present → present which “has been”
o    Doubly relative: relative to present it has been and relative to the present to which it is now a past
•    Memory recompenses with a different present
•    We place ourselves directly in the past itself
•    Involuntary memory: resemblance of present to past
o    Makes context inseparable from present moment
•    Involuntary memory causes use to regain lost time
Chapter 7: Antilogos, or the Literary Machine
•    The truth is produced, produced by orders of machines which function within us, it’s extracted from our impressions, hewn out of our life, delivered in a work
Conclusion
•    Every truth is a truth of time
•    The sign forces us to think—it’s the object of an encounter
•    There is no Logos, there are only hieroglyphs
o    To think is therefore to interpret, is therefore to translate
Critical moments in the text
•    6: “The worldly sign appears as the replacement of an action or a thought.  It stands for action and for thought.  It is therefore a sign which does not refer to something else, to a transcendent signification or to an ideal content, but which has usurped the supposed value of its meaning.  This is why worldliness, judged from the viewpoint of actions, appears to be disappointing and cruel; and from the viewpoint of thought, it appears stupid.”
•    11: “This experiences, the quality no longer appears as a property of the object which now posses it, but as the sign of an altogether different object which we must try to decipher, at the cost of an effort which always risks failure.”
•    13: “Now the world of art is the ultimate world of signs, and these signs, as though dematerialized, find their meaning in an ideal essence.  Henceforth, the world revealed by art reacts on all the others, and notable on the sensuous signs; it integrates them, colors them with an esthetic meaning and imbues what was still opaque about them.”
•    56-7: “Voluntary memory proceeds as if the past were constituted as such after it has been present.  It would therefore have to wait for a new present so that the preceding one could pass by, or become past.  But in this way the essence of time escapes us.  For if the present was not past at the same time as present, if the same moment did not coexist with itself as present and past, it would never pass, a new present would never come to replace this one. The past as it is in itself coexists with, and does not succeed, the present it has been.
•    99: “It is no longer a matter of saying: to create is to remember—but rather, to remember is to create, is to reach that point where the associative chain breaks, leaps over the constituted individual, is transferred to the birth of an individuating world.”
•    101: “Perhaps that is what time is: the ultimate existence of parts, of different sizes and shapes, which cannot be adapted, which do not develop at the same rhythm, and which the stream of style does not sweep along the same speed.  The order of the cosmos has collapsed, crumbled into associative chains and non-communicating viewpoints”
•    102: Proust’s reminiscence: “an associative, incongruous chain is unified only by a creative viewpoint which itself takes the role of an incongruous part with the whole.”
•    166: “There are other things which force us to think: no longer recognizable objects, but things which do violence, encountered signs.  These are simultaneously contrary perceptions,” Plato states.  (Proust will say: sensations common to two places, to two moments.)”

24
Jul
08

Llull’s “Nine Functions of Memory”

Ramon Llull: “Nine Functions of Memory”; “Memory Training”
Area: History of Rhetoric and Memory Studies
Llull’s Thought
•    Author of 256 works
•    Mostly interested in persuasion at all intellectual levels of society
o    Persuaded differently for different works/audiences
o    To “save souls”; consistency of personal social convictions less important
•    Multiplicity: wrote on various subjects but not as an expert
•    His methods of presentation evolved, not the number of variations
•    Phases:
o    Pre-art (1272-4)
o    Quarternary (1274-89): first unhappy teaching experience in Paris
•    Cycle of the Ars compendiosa inveniendivertem (Blaquerna)
•    Cycle of the Ars demonstrativa (Felix)
o    Ternary phase (1290-1308): Principles of art appearing in groups of nine
o    Post-Art (1308-15): interest in mechanization of thought is lost in favor of specific logical and philosophical problems
•    Based his arguments on a faith acceptable to Christians, Muslims, and Jews
•    Divine attributes made into cornerstone of his system
o    In Ars brevis: Goodness, Greatness, Eternity, Power, Wisdom, Will, Virtue, Truth, and Glory
•    Structured universe: modus essendi, modus intelligendi
o    Do not constitute the Art, but realte in three ways:
•    Specifies their foundation
•    Uses them as a basis for a modus operandi
•    “Finds” or demonstrates the truth (modus probandi)
•    Five applications for art:
o    “To understand and love God”
o    “To be attached to virtues and to hate vices”
o    “To confound the erroneous opinions of unbelievers by means of cogent reasons”
o    “To formulate and solve questions”
o    “To be able to acquire other sciences in a brief space of time and to bring them to their necessary conclusions according to the requirements of the material”
“Nine Functions of Memory”
1.    Attractive Memory: Attracts species to itself from outside to nourish its own intrinsic act of remembering
1.    Intellect and will can’t acquire any species unless memory naturally participates in acquiring them
2.    Receptive Memory: Receives peregrine species acquired from the outside by the intellect and will to which memory is joined
3.    Conservative Memory: Governance of memory relies upon the balance of memory’s intrinsic and extrinsic habits, without which nothing can be conserved
4.    Multiplicative Memory: Memory reproduces itself in syllables, statements, and syllogisms
5.    Discursive Memory: Stores one species at a time, another at another time
6.    Significative Memory: Receives meanings conveyed to it; things are signified by signs
7.    Restorative Memory: Memory receives species as input and restores them as output
8.    Determinative Memory: Memory defines its acts within the scope of the acts of intellect and will
9.    Complexionative Memory: elemental complextion of memory is cold and dry, but accidentally on account of the body (not sure what this really means…)
“Memory Training”
•    Human memory fails and is unstable
•    Use the alphabet
o    B: natural memory; C:  capacity; D: discrete memory
•    Learning should not exert too much physical stress and avoid excessive frustrations
o    Regulate eating and drinking habits
•    Capacity (memory) will take root in commitment to work
•    Three powers: 1. Fantasy (forehead); 2. Memory (back of head); 3. Discretion (top of head—rules as queen over other 2)
o    capacity<memory<discretion
•    When in lecture, first turn over the ideas you heard/prepared; then commit to memory the second point discussed; finally, write down what you don’t know
•    Two kinds of memory: natural and artificial
o    Natural: received at time of your creation
o    Artificial: 2 kinds
•    Drugs and ointments used to stimulate it (extremely dangerous)
o    Dries out the brain
•    “Chew on it”: must turn ideas over and over—don’t hide them, but be ready to regurgitate it in a more digested form
o    exceeding and frequent repetition

23
Jul
08

Plato’s Phaedrus

Plato, Phaedrus
Area: History of Rhetoric and Memory Studies
Intro
• Distinction between knowledge and belief
• The superior soul is slow to develop by the need to conform to the opinions of the immature/inferior soul
• Persuasion-to-belief: bad rhetoric
o Like the lust of the non-lover: exploits object of lost at eh same time it destroys the one who lusts
• Persuasion-to-knowledge: good rhetoric
o Like love, seeks to make the beloved a better person
• To influence the soul, the rhetor must know the truth: analyze and synthesize
• Dialogue is superior to writing because it can lead to truth
Phaedrus
• He who is ruled by desire will make his beloved as pleasing to himself as possible
o The lover will find someone weaker/inferior
• “Just as the wolf loves the lamb, so the lover adores his beloved”
• The lover is insane, the other is sane
• He who loves the beautiful, partaking in this madness, is called a lover
From an earlier post on a different blog
Most clearly in Plato’s Phaedrus, the descriptions of Eros and the motives of lovers/non-lovers, illustrates that sophistry truly is wildly, intelligent trickery. With “judgment weakened by passion,” Phaedrus notes that, “lovers consider how by reason of their love they have neglected their own concerns and rendered service to others” (4). By “neglecting their own concerns,” the lover selfishly seeks out pleasure rather than true friendship seen by the non-lovers. The lover, then, is constantly vying for attention, making oneself attractive to a variety of others Making oneself attractive to others is like updating one’s CV for different jobs—one displays what one needs (or, lacks) at this specific moment, and why that person/school would be the perfect match. Crudely speaking, Mr. Right Now. Lovers and sophists alike fit themselves into different situations by recognizing their own need, and finding someone to fill it. This moment of recognizing the personal need is what I find so brilliant about the sophists. As Jaeger notes,

“Now, if we assume that the purpose of rhetoric is to deceive the audience—to lead them to false conclusions by resemblances alone—that makes it imperative for the orator to have exact knowledge of the dialectic method of classification, for that is the only way to understand the varying degrees of resemblance between things” (189, emphasis mine).

If lovers and (as?) sophists both deceive their audiences, flattery and trickery are not done out of foolishness or accident, but rather though complete and precise knowledge of their subjects.

22
Jul
08

Quintilian’s Institutio oratoria: Book 11, Chapter 2

Quintilian: Institutio oratoria
Area: History of Rhetoric and Memory Studies
Intro
•    The best students are those who excel at memory work and mimicry
•    Quintilian defines rhetoric as “the art of speaking well”
o    Well = effectively and virtuously
•    Oratory that doesn’t move its hearers toward good is not rhetoric
•    Natural ability and learning both contribute equally to rhetorical skills
•    ≠ Cicero: gave natural ability primacy
•    5 parts of rhetoric: invention, arrangement, expression, memory, delivery/action
•    3 subject matters: the panegyrical, the deliberative, the judicial
•    3 offices an orator must accomplish in every speech: inform, move, please
•    Stasis theory ask three questions: “Whether a thing is?”; “what is it?”; “of what species it is?”
Book 11, Chapter 2
•    Memory is strengthened by exercise—all knowledge depends on memory
•    An orator should have an abundance of facts memorized and ready to dispense
•    Memory is the treasury of eloquence
•    While we utter one thought, we always have to think of the next
o    Always looking beyond the immediate object
•    The memory transmits these conceptions to the delivery: intercommunication
•    Memory may be dulled by the condition of the body
•    Even inferior animals exhibit memory (returning to their homes)
•    Memory doesn’t always stay with us, but returns after being lost
•    Memory provides the orator with an order—extends series almost to infinity
o    Patience of the hearer should fail sooner than the memory of the speaker
•    Quintilian agrees with Plato when he says: what we commit to writing we lose—cripples our memory
o    We lose it through mere neglect
•    Simonides: memory assisted by localities impressed on the mind
•    Place thoughts in line with symbols—walk through house and recite all items in any order
•    Cicero: must fancy many plain and distinct places
•    Metrodorus: 360 places and 12 sun signs (Yates: zodiac)
o    Boastful of his memory as a result of art, not gift of nature
•    How can the orators words flow on if he has to continually refer to particular images?
•    Advantages to learn long speeches in parts; section should not be too short as that distracts and harasses the memory
•    Finding similarities between objects is very helpful—will have greatest effect in fixing things in our memory
•    Learn to memorize from the same tablets on which something’s written originally
o    Will see all changes this way, too
•    Memorize aloud—silence will let other thoughts interfere
•    Testing by repetition
•    The only and great art of memory is exercise and labor
o    Learn much by heart and daily meditation
•    Reminiscence: the most efficient quality of memory
•    Question: should those who are readying to deliver a speech:
o    Learn it by heart verbatim?
o    Or, master the substance and order of particulars?
•    A good memory appears like we’ve created a speech in that instant

22
Jul
08

Anonymous: Rhetorica ad Herennium

Anonymous Rhetorica ad Herennium
Area: History of Rhetoric and Memory Studies
Intro
•    Oldest surviving complete rhetoric manual in Latin
•    Divided into four books, covering all five canons
o    I & II: Invention (stasis theory and forensic oratory)
o    III: Arrangement, Delivery, Memory
o    IV: Style
•    Author attacks Greek rhetoric—borrowing examples to illustrate rhetorical principles
o    Author argues that the rhetorician should create own examples
Book III
•    Deliberative speech: choice between two or several courses of action is considered
•    Advantage in political deliberation has two aspects: security and honor
o    Security: provide plan to avoid danger
•    Divided further into might and craft
o    Honor: right and praiseworthy
•    Divided into wisdom, justice, courage, and temperance
•    A well-furnished memory, or experienced verse matters, is wisdom
•    Praiseworthy and right should never be separated
•    Nothing ought to be deemed honorable which doesn’t produce safety
•    Fortune favors the brave—not he who is safe in the present, but he who lives honorably
•    Qualities of character (rest on our judgment and thought): wisdom, justice, courage, temperance
•    Function of intro: to jog memory—must be attuned to audiences knowledge of subject
•    Invention—the most difficult part of rhetoric
•    Two kinds of arrangement: arising from principles of rhetoric and accommodated to particular circumstances
•    Arrangement for proof and refutation arguments:
o    Strongest arguments placed at beginning and end
o    Medium force arguments in the middle
o    What’s said at the end is easily committed to memory—give something useful, fresh, and strong
•    The guardian of all parts of rhetoric: memory
•    2 kinds of memory: natural and artificial
o    Natural: imbedded in our minds, born simultaneously with thought
o    Artificial: strengthened by training and system of discipline
•    Artificial and natural memory strengthen each other
•    Artificial memory includes backgrounds—scenes natural or artificial set off se we can grasp them with natural memory
•    Should desire to memorize large numbers of items, equip ourselves with number of backgrounds
o    That way we can repeat anything in any direction
•    We are more likely to remember something that’s interesting to us
•    Author disagrees with Greek practice of listing images that correspond to words
o    Why should we rob anybody of making connections and seeking things out for oneself
•    223: “Nor have I included memorization of words to enable us to get very by rote, but rather as an exercise whereby to strengthen that other kind of memory, the memory of matter, which is of practical use”
•    A ready memory is very useful, and we must strive to acquire so useful a faculty
Favorite moment
225: “You might rehearse in your mind each of the first four divisions, and—what is especially necessary—fortify your knowledge of them with exercise”




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